Q&A session about the design and use of effect

  • How was effect developed?
  • What research is effect based on?
  • What benefits does this online questionnaire offer clients?
  • How should effect be used?
  • What is the outcome of using the online tool?

Improving the effectiveness of management teams

effect is an online tool which gives a management or leadership team insight into its own strengths and development areas as well as providing concrete suggestions on how to improve its effectiveness.

effect - Product details

Effective management teams

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What does this assessment measure?

effect is an online survey tool which measures the productivity and effectiveness of management teams.
It offers the possibility to benchmark against international norms, and provides concrete suggestions for improvement.

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Webinar: Maximise team effectiveness

This webinar explains how management teams can be supported and coached into increased effectiveness using the cut-e questionnaire effect. Bang & Midelfart’s 40 years of research into management teams effectiveness is the core of what is captured and measured with effect. The model has been tested in with over 100 management team development in the last 15 years.

Benchmark your leadership team against others

When you need to improve the effectiveness of your management or leadership team, learning how its members view their working together is a great start. It ‘focuses the mind’ and gives a baseline against which progress can be measured. But you’ll want to know how other teams do, and how they work together.

effect allows you to benchmark your team against a group of over 200 executive or leadership teams, based on a widely researched and widely used model of effectiveness.

How effect was developed and its foundation

Associate professor Henning Bang (PhD) has led a research project at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway into team effectiveness since 1981. It aims to identify the indicators of a high performing management team and the factors that predict, influence and are associated with such performance.



After comprehensive reviews of international research over the past 35 years and empirical research on more than 200 management teams, Dr Bang and his research team developed the model of management team effectiveness.

This model consists of 24 factors and forms the basis of the effect tool. Using this online questionnaire, effect asks each management or leadership team member to evaluate the team performance as a whole on each of these factors. Their evaluation is then compared to a benchmark of over 200 management teams.

Through effect, organisations are able to assess and diagnose how their management teams may need to develop. We offer additional training and team effectiveness development should you need it.

How do you create an effective leadership team within a flat organisation?

In flatter organisations, leadership teams tend to bring together different functions, expertise, perspectives and approaches and this can mean that they don’t work effectively as they could do. Furthermore, flatter organisations tend to have more people within a management or leadership team and that, in itself, can reduce effectiveness.

Here are four tips to help answer the question: 


  • First of all, consider the make-up of the team, who is represented and whether there is adequate representation of skills, insights, and operational responsibility.
  • Secondly, make sure that you set out the clear parameters that the team operates within and the processes that are to be followed and ensure that every management team member understands these.
  • Thirdly, emphasize the importance of preparation for team meetings; it means that each team member joins the meeting ready to discuss and decide on action.
  • And finally, help to implement these actions and decisions by adding some structure and accountability.

effect explained by the expert

Prof Henning Bang, who led the research into management team effectiveness, talks about the online tool effect and explains how a more productive output of team meetings can add value for an organisation, for team members and team functioning.

Reference reading

Bang, H., Fuglesang, S. L., Ovesen, M. R., & Eilertsen, D. E. (2010). Effectiveness in top management group meetings: The role of goal clarity, focused communication, and learning behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 51, 253-261.

Cannon, M. D. & Edmondson, A., (2005), Failing to Learn and Learning to Fail (Intelligently). Long Range Planning, no. 3, 299-319.

Cohen, S. G. & Bailey, D. E., (1997). What Makes Teams Work: Group Effectiveness Research from the Shop Floor to the Executive Suite. Journal of Management, vol. 23 no. 3, 239-290.

De Wit, F. R. C., Jehn, K. A. & Greer, L. L., (2012). The Paradox of Intergroup Conflict - A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 360-390

Distefano, J. J., Maznevski, M. L. (2000). Creating value with diverse teams in global management. Organizational Dynamics, vol. 31 no. 1, 124-153

Edmondson, A., (1999). Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams. ProQuest Psychology Journals,  vol.  96 no. 6, 1258-1274

Edmondson, A. & McLain Smith, D., (2008). Too hot to handle? How to manage relationship conflict. Rotman Magazine, vol. 49 no. 1, 6-31

Edmondson, A. & Lei, Z., (2014). Psychological Safety - The history, renaissance and future of an interpersonal construct. annualreviews.org

Friedman, V., Lipshitz, R. & Popper, M., (2005). The Mystification of Organizational Learning. Journal of Management Inquiry

Kozlowski, S. & Bell, B., (2001). Work Groups and Teams in Organizations. Cornell University ILR School

Mathieu, M., Maynard, T., Rapp, T. &Gilson, L., (2008). Team Effectiveness 1997-2007: A Review of Recent Advancements and a Glimpse Into the Futur. Journal of Management

Salas, E., Sims, D. & Burke, S., (2005). Is there a "Big Five" in Teamwork?. Small Group Research

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